Multiple sclerosis whole body cryotherapy - WBCT

Influence of whole body cryotherapy on sclerosis multiplex - MS

Merkur Lekarski. 2011 Sep;31(183):186-9.
Cryostimulation as an antioxidative factor in sclerosis multiplex
Miller Elżbieta
Department of Neurorehabilitation, III General Hospital in Łódź, Poland.

Cryostimulation is becoming popular in medicine and sport. However, changes that occur in the human body subjected to cryogenic temperatures are still not completely understood. Sclerosis multiplex (MS) is a complex disease with several pathophysiological processes: inflammation, demyelination, oxidative stress, axonal damage and repair mechanisms that participate in this disorder. These processes are not uniformly represented in patient populations but can selectively predominate in individual patients. Oxidative stress plays an important role in ptophysiology of MS. Currently approved therapies for relapse-remitting multiple sclerosis target only the onset of multiple sclerosis. There is a need for developing new therapies especially in progressive phase of MS that are more process-specific and can be used in specific patient subpopulations. Cryostimulation is a short term lasted 2-3 min cooling of whole body crotherapy with temperature between -110 degrees C and -160 degrees C. Currently studies suggested antioxidative role of cryostimulation in MS patients. The further studies of oxidative stress in MS patients are required to explain the role and antioxidative mechanisms of WBCT in MS patients treatment.

Effect of whole body cryotherapy on uric acid concentration in plasma of multiple sclerosis patients
Elżbieta Miller, Józef Kędziora
Neurological Rehabilitation Ward, III General Hospital in Lodz;
Department of Biochemistry, Collegium Medicum of Bydgoszcz,
M. Kopernik University of Toruń

Many clinical studies show lower concentration of uric acid (UA) in plasma multiple sclerosis (MS) patients than in healthy controls. UA has been suggested as a marker of disease activity. Increasing UA concentration has been proposed as a therapy for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases including MS because of the neuroprotective properties of UA. Using whole body cryotherapy (WBCT) becoming popular in Poland because of improving functional activity of MS patients, decreased of spastisity and analgesic properties of cryogenic temperatures.
Material and methods. The study estimate UA concentration in plasma of MS patients (n=32) and healthy controls (n=35) before
and after 10 (3 minutes) exposures of WBCT.
Results. UA concentration in plasma of MS patients 4.0±0.57 mg/dl is lower than in healthy controls (5,1 ±0.3 mg/dl). After using 10 exposures of WBCT we observed increase of UA concentration after WBCT treatment higher in MS patients (5,6 ±0.74 mg/dl) than in controls subjects (5,5 ±0.48 mg/dl).
Conclusions. Results of our study indicate significant increase of UA concentration in plasma of MS patients (p<0.001) and healthy controls (p<0.01). WBCT might to be the therapy which affected on the increase of the concentration of UA in MS patients
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Effects of the whole-body cryotherapy on a total antioxidative status and activities of some antioxidative enzymes in blood of patients with multiple sclerosis

Elzbieta Miller, Malgorzata Mrowicka, Katarzyna Malinowska, Krystian Zolynski
and Józef Kędziora

III General Hospital in Lódz, Rehabilitation Ward,
Medical University of Lódz, Chair of Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry,
Medical University of Lódz, Clinic of Orthopedition and Traumatology

Objective. There is evidence that multiple sclerosis (MS) is not only characterized by immune mediated inflammatory reactions but also by neurodegenerative processes. Neutralization of oxidative stress and excitotoxicity, might represent a therapeutic approach to provide neuroprotection in MS. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in total antioxidative status and activities of chosen antioxidative enzymes, such as : SOD, CAT in erythrocytes of patients with MS before and after using WBCT with control group. Materials and methods. 32 patients with multiple sclerosis (ICD10-G35) and
20 healthy subjects were recruited for the study. The examined MS group (n=16) was treated with a series of 10 daily exposures in a cryogenic chamber (2-3 min, from -120°
to -110°and program of exercises. The control MS group (n=16) had only exercises.
Plasma TAS as well as SOD and CAT activities in erythrocytes were measured. Results.
The level of TAS in MS patients was distinctly reduced compared to healthy subjects. After two weeks of WBCT treatment an increase of TAS in the whole examined group (p
0,01) were observed in relation to control MS group. There was not increase of CuZnSOD
and CAT activities.
Conclusion. Our results suggest positive antioxidant effects of WBCT as a short-term adjuvant treatment for patients suffered due to MS.
J. Med. Invest. 57 : 168- 173, February, 2010

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Volume 112, Number 3 (2012), 275-280, DOI: 10.1007/s13760-012-0059-4
Evaluation of serum oxidant/antioxidant balance in multiple sclerosis
Abdullah Acar, M. Ugur Cevik, Osman Evliyaoglu, Ertugrul Uzar, Yusuf Tamam, Adalet Arikanoglu, Yavuz Yucel, Sefer Varol, Hakan Onder and Nebahat Taşdemir

The total oxidative status (TOS)/total anti-oxidative status (TAS) ratio can provide information on an individual’s absolute oxidative stress index (OSI). We investigated the alterations in the oxidant–antioxidant balance by measuring the oxidant parameters OSI, TOS, and malondialdehyde (MDA) together with the antioxidant parameters such as TAS, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate OSI in patients with relapsing remitting MS. 35 ambulatory patients with relapsing–remitting MS (35.8 ± 8.7 years) and 32 age- and activity-matched healthy control subjects (35.1 ± 3.7 years) that participated in the study. Serum TAS and TOS levels were determined using new automated methods. MS patients had higher concentrations of MDA (151.5 ± 51.1 vs. 111.3 ± 27.4 nmol/g protein, respectively; p < 0.001), TOS (148.1 ± 162.5 vs. 48.3 ± 46.4 mmol H2O2 Equiv./g protein, respectively; p = 0.002), OSI (21124 ± 32543 vs. 5294 ± 5562, respectively; p = 0.008), and SOD (4.5 ± 0.7 vs. 3.4 ± 0.6 U/L, respectively; p < 0.001) compared with healthy controls. On the other hand, MS patients had lower concentrations of NO (12.3 ± 6.9 vs. 17.4 ± 2.5 µmol/g protein, respectively; p < 0.001) and TAS (0.82 ± 0.27 vs. 0.26 ± 0.15, respectively; p = 0.011) compared with healthy controls.
In conclusion, these findings indicate that the oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of MS.

European Journal of Applied Physiology
© The Author(s) 2011
Effect of short-term cryostimulation on antioxidative status and its clinical applications in humans
Elżbieta Miller1, 4 , Łukasz Markiewicz3 , Joanna Saluk2 and Ireneusz Majsterek3

(1) Rehabilitation Ward, III General Hospital in Lodz, Milionowa 14, Lodz, Poland
(2) Department of General Biochemistry, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, Lodz, Poland
(3) Department of Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz, Pl. Hallera 1, Lodz, Poland
(4) Łyżwiarska 31, 94-124 Lodz, Poland
Published online: 28 August 2011

Whole body cryostimulation (WBCT) is becoming popular in medicine and sport as an adjuvant form of treatment since late 1970s. Only a few works concerning antioxidant protection after WBCT have been published. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a ten 3-min-long exposures (one exposure per day) to cryogenic temperature (-130°C) on the level of total antioxidant status (TAS), activity of selected antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and main non-enzymatic antioxidant—uric acid (UA) in WBCT study group (man n = 24; female n = 22) and non-WBCT control subjects (man n = 22; female n = 26). Moreover, we evaluated the lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances products. Their blood samples were collected twice at an interval of 10 days in both study group and control subjects. The activity of antioxidant enzyme and lipid peroxidation was assayed in erythrocytes, while the concentration of uric acid was measured in plasma. After completing a total of ten WBCT sessions a significant increase (p < 0.001) of TAS and UA levels in plasma (p < 0.001) in comparison to non-WBCT was observed. Our data showed that there was statistically significant increase of the activities of SOD in erythrocytes obtained from WBCT study group compared to non-WBCT controls after 10 days of treatment (p < 0.001). It was concluded that expositions to extremely low temperatures use in cryostimulation improve the antioxidant capacity of organism.

Whole body cryostimulation (WBCT) is becoming popular in medicine and sport as an adjuvant form of treatment. The reported reasons for WBCT include improved general well-being, and self-treatment or body hardening against respiratory tract infections and musculoskeletal pains. WBCT is often used as an additional form of treatment for inflammation and pain in, for example, arthritis, osteoarthritis, and fibromyalgia (Duqué et al. 2005; Miller et al. 2010a, b, c). WBCT has been found useful in neurological diseases including multiple sclerosis (Miller et al. 2010a, b, c) and psychiatric disorders such as anxiety–depressive syndrome (Rymaszewska et al. 2008). Treatment with the total exposure of the body at extremely low temperatures was first introduced in Japan towards the end of the 1970s by Yamauchi (1989) who constructed the first cryogenic chamber and successfully used cryotherapy to treat rheumatism. The influence of extremely low temperatures on the human body and physiological reactions is not fully recognized (Lange et al. 2008; Lubkowska et al. 2010; Miller et al. 2010a, b, c).

In our study, we showed that cryostimulation may reduce oxidative stress via a significant increase not only in the level of TAS but also UA in plasma and activity of SOD in erythrocytes. In the present study, lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes measured as TBARS was not statistically increased after WBCT. Other important antioxidants such as glutathione peroxidase should be examined by further research on cryostimulation.

It seems that WBCT may be used as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of diseases with oxidative stress background, since it improves the antioxidant capacity of organism.
Further studies are required to explain the antioxidative mechanisms in humans and determine the short term or long term effects of cryochamber exposure.

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Whole Body Cryotherapy, Cryotherapy WBCT WBC depression cryotherapy


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